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Proposed guidelines for inclusive subtitles in a Maltese context (EN)
© Dr. Giselle Spiteri Miggiani


The following guidelines are to be considered work in progress. Further experimental studies are necessary to test and develop them further. Meanwhile, they are being used for didactic and educational purposes, applied research, and for local professional media localisation projects.

The parameters and specifications provided are intended for interlingual and intralingual subtitling both in English and Maltese (source languages: English, Maltese, or foreign languages). They are meant to guide audiovisual translators in a Maltese linguistic and cultural setting. They draw on widespread standards and conventions and their variations in use across TV networks, streaming platforms, and localisation companies globally, and have been adapted to suit Maltese-specific needs.

Inclusive subtitles are intended for a broad spectrum of viewers who may or may not have hearing loss, and who may or may not understand Maltese. The specifications and strategies proposed aim to create an inclusive enjoyable experience that can be shared by all alike. The aim is to seek a balance that ensures that no viewer is deprived of essential information (e.g., relevant sounds, or culture-specific terms and references) while trying to avoid overabundant or redundant information.

For further detail on the ongoing research carried out to develop these guidelines, refer to the author's forthcoming articles.

To contact author:

1. Character limitation


  • Characters per subtitle line for documentaries, TV programmes, interviews, or similar reality productions: 40 (spaces included)

  • Characters per subtitle line for fiction productions (film & TV series): 38 (spaces included)

2. Reading speed

  • Adult programmes: max 15 cps (characters per second)

  • Children’s programmes: max 12 cps (characters per second)

3. Duration

  • Minimum duration: ideally, 1 second. Minimum 20 frames in the case of one-word subtitles.

  • Maximum duration: 6 seconds per subtitle event


4. Frame gap


  • Minimum 2 frames between subtitles


5. Position

  • In general, subtitles should be centre justified and placed at the bottom of the screen, unless otherwise requested by the client.

  • Subtitles can be aligned to the top throughout opening credits or if there is on-screen text in the video material. Maintain consistency at the top all throughout the opening credits instead of alternating between the top and bottom of the screen.

  • Displacement to the left or right can be adopted in short dual dialogue scenes. Character tags are not necessary if displacement is used in such instances.

  • Creative positioning and subtitle display options can be discussed with the client depending on the type of production at hand. Compatibility with the editors’ program needs to be verified to ensure that any typeface formatting, alignment, or displacement are not lost.

6. Text segmentation into subtitles

  • Maximum of 2 lines per subtitle.

  • 3 lines can be used at the end for subtitling credits.

  • Prioritise two-line subtitles in documentaries, informative videos, or similar genres.

  • Use both two-line and one-line subtitles for fiction productions as necessary. Merge and separate lines according to the speech flow, rhythm and pauses to enhance the reading experience.

  • Avoid segmenting text in such a way as to have to resort to the euphonic /i/ in MT at the beginning of the next subtitle. Resort to reformulation where necessary.


7. Timing and shot changes


  • Ideally subtitles should match the duration of the utterance. If this is not possible and a longer duration is required, extend up to 12 frames max.

  • Whenever possible, avoid subtitles that cross over shot changes (that is, subtitles that continue over a cut). Start or end the subtitle with the shot change when the cross-over duration before or after the shot change is 7 frames or less.

  • Ideally, the time code of entry and exit should match the speech utterance. However, customised solutions are often necessary to suit local productions, particularly in the case of inconsistencies or broken speech in documentary interviews (e.g., false starts with pauses, a word repeated multiple times at the beginning of a line, and so on). It might be necessary to cue in a subtitle slightly later when the speech starts to flow, thus adopting a more customised synchronisation approach.


8. Line break

  • When the text needs to be subdivided into 2 lines, prioritise the reading flow. Ideally, break the line before conjunctions, after punctuation marks, before prepositions, possibly obtaining a self-contained semantic unit on each line.

  • Ideally, the line break should not separate a noun from an adjective or an article, a verb from the subject pronoun, a prepositional verb from its preposition, a verb from its auxiliary, reflexive pronoun or negation.

  • Try not to separate names from surnames.

  • When subtitling in MT do not separate hyphenated or prepositional articles from the noun (e.g., fix-xitwa, it-traduzzjoni).


9. Italics


  • In fiction productions: voice-over speech, narration, or inner thoughts.

  • In documentaries/TV programmes: italics may be avoided for narrators/speakers/presenters when the voice-over narration constitutes almost 50% of the spoken content in the programme. Name tags can be used to indicate voice-over narration (e.g., [host], [Clare], [narrator]).

  • Only when the speaker is not in the narrative/diegetic space and not merely off camera.

  • Dialogue heard over the phone, television, computer, or any electronic device that produces a voice effect.

  • Song lyrics. Use quotation marks for song titles. A musical note can be added at the beginning of each song lyric subtitle. The last lyric subtitle will have a musical note at the beginning and end to highlight the end of the song.

  • Titles of books, newspapers, works of art, music albums, movies, TV shows.

  • Unfamiliar foreign words and phrases. Names of food/dishes or other culture-specific elements.

  • Do not italicise proper names such as MT or foreign locations or company names. Simply use upper case for the first letter.

  • In EN subtitles, do not italicise MT words in general, such as intercalary words (e.g., mela, ejja) or familiar words in other languages (e.g., “ad hoc,” “rendezvous”) when retained in the target text.

  • In MT subtitles, do not italicise EN words in general or familiar words in other languages.


10. Dual speakers

  • Use a hyphen without a space to indicate two speakers in one subtitle. One line per speaker. The hyphen precedes any name tag.

Subtitle 1

-Where have you been?



               Subtitle 1

-[Clare] Let’s talk about it.

-[Joe] Yes, of course.


                Subtitle 1

-[Joe laughs]

-I told you so!

  • Use two hyphens when you have a sound caption or tag on one line coming from one source and a dialogue line on the next line coming from a different source.

-[phone rings]



11. Ellipsis and suspension dots

  • Do not use ellipses (3 dots) or dashes when an ongoing sentence is split between two or more continuous subtitles.

Subtitle 1   We had asked you

Subtitle 2   to focus on your final exams. 

  • Use ellipsis at the end of the first subtitle only if there is a long pause between subtitles. In this case, it is not necessary to use an ellipsis at the beginning of the second subtitle. If the pause is very long you can consider ellipsis also at the beginning of the second line to indicate that it is a continuation. Otherwise, when there are no pauses, do not use dots every time you split a sentence.

Subtitle 1   Had I known...

Subtitle 2   I wouldn’t have called.

  • To indicate a pause within the same subtitle use three dots without leaving a space.

Subtitle 1   Had I known...I wouldn’t have called.

  • Use suspension dots to indicate an incomplete sentence or an abrupt interruption.

Subtitle 1 Where the hell are yo…?

Subtitle 2 Shut your mouth!

  • Use an ellipsis without a space to indicate that a subtitle is starting mid-sentence.

Subtitle 1 going to school.


12. Written graphics/on-screen text

  • When the main SL is MT, and the TL is EN, any MT or foreign-language on-screen text requires an EN translation unless ‘covered’ in the dialogue/speech or purposely added in the subtitled speech content (e.g., adding the title or designation of an interviewee in the subtitles).

  • When the main SL is EN, and the TL is MT, it is not necessary to translate the English on-screen text.

  • Use upper case letters for the whole text, except for written passages taken from books, letters, newspapers, or very long chat messages. If the characters are reading the on-screen text aloud use quotation marks.


  • If a character/speaker reads the on-screen text, use inverted commas (and no upper case letters) to highlight that the text is being read. Use a name tag if the character/speaker is not on screen.

  • Avoid graphical overlap with any onscreen text - position subtitle where it would be easier to read.

  • Do not combine dialogue and narrative titles in the same subtitle.

  • If a narrative title interrupts the dialogue, use ellipsis at the end of the subtitle and the beginning of the next one.

Subtitle 1   When I was young…

Subtitle 2    NO SMOKING

Subtitle 3    …we were allowed to smoke anywhere.

  • When translating and subtitling the title of a production use upper case for the whole text (e.g., CULHAT AL BELT, THE LOCAL TRAVELLER).


13a. Numbers and Time (English)


  • From 1 to 10 - written out in words (e.g., wieħed, tnejn, tlieta).

  • Above 10 - written numerically (e.g., 11, 12, 13, 135, 1,000) Use the written form (or a combination of numeric and written form) for larger numbers with several zeros, and the numeric form for numbers with a decimal point for ease of comprehension (e.g., one million, 12 million, 100 thousand, 2.5 million).

  • Use word form when a number is at the beginning of a subtitle.

  • Be consistent with points and commas (e.g., 5,000, 1.95 million inhabitants, 9.30 pm).

  • Be consistent with dates and ordinal numbers (e.g., 5th May, May 5, or 5th of May). The first option is preferable.

  • Use numerals for dates (even 1 to 10).

  • Time: a) Use numerals (e.g., 11.30 am); b) Use lowercase am, and pm when specifying is necessary; c) Time expressions that do not include numbers need to be written in words (e.g., half past, quarter to, midnight, noon).


13b. Numbers and Time (Maltese)

  • From 1 to 10 - written out in words (e.g., one, two, three, etc.).

  • Above 10 - written numerically (e.g., 11, 12, 13, 135, 1,000 etc.).

  • A combined numeric and word form can be used for larger numbers (e.g., 70 elf).

  • Use the numeric form for numbers with a decimal point (e.g., 2.5 miljun).

  • Use word form when a number is at the beginning of a subtitle.

  • Use word form for all morphological inflections (e.g., ħamest itfal, żewġ, mitt, 1,000, mitt elf, ħames miljuni, tlett irġiel).

  • Use numerals for dates (5 ta’ ġunju)

  • Time: use numeric form and the 12-hour clock format (e.g., fid-9 am). Nofsillejl and nofsinhar can be written out in words, time and space permitting.

14. Units of measure and currency

  • Translate but do not convert old units of measurement that are not in use today (e.g., in history documentaries).

  • When the target audience is unknown it is recommended to translate and convert imperial measurements into the metric system (centimetres and metres rather than feet, inches, yards etc.).

  • If the target audience is Australian or Maltese, imperial measurements can be taken into consideration. Adopt consistency throughout.

  • When the TL is MT, convert units of measure according to MT usage.

  • English abbreviations for measurements can be used in MT subtitles (e.g., cm, m, km).

  • Whenever possible use currency in words (pounds, yen, krona) instead of the symbol. An exception can be made for the more commonly used € and $ in the case of time and space restrictions.

  • The % symbol (no space) can be used, and fractions can resort to the numeric form (e.g., 1/3, 2/3).

  • ‘M’ can be used for million or miljun.


15. Abbreviations

  • Well-known abbreviations/shortenings/acronyms/contractions may be used. No full stops. Use upper case for abbreviations: FYI, ASAP, FBI, EU, MEPA, WWI, and a blend for contractions if needed (e.g., Dr, Mr, km, cm, m)



  • Double quotation marks are to be used for quoted words, phrases, and sentences; use single quotation marks for quotations within quotations. 

Subtitle 1 She told me: "Lectures are cancelled."

  • If the quote extends beyond more than one subtitle, use an open quote at the beginning of the first subtitle and an end quote at the end of the last subtitle.

Subtitle 1   "If you can fill the unforgiving minute

Subtitle 2   With sixty seconds’ worth of distance run,

Subtitle 3   Yours is the Earth and everything that’s in it."

  • Periods and commas precede closing quotation marks, whether double or single.

  • Colons and semicolons follow closing quotation marks.

  • Question marks and exclamation marks follow quotation marks unless they belong within the quoted text: 

Subtitle 1

Which poem contains the phrase:

 "If you can fill the unforgiving minute…"?

Subtitle 2

"If" by Rudyard Kipling. 

  • Song titles should be enclosed in quotes. Italics are used for the lyrics and names of music albums.


17. Sensory access

  • Providing sensory access to HOH viewers among the broader target audience is taken as a default approach unless otherwise specified by the client.

  • Sounds and speaker identifiers: Use square brackets and lowercase letters (except for proper nouns) for captions describing sounds, music, as well as name tags (e.g., [Joe laughs], [whistling softly], [Joe] I knew it was her).

       Do not italicise even if the dialogue that follows is in voice-over etc.

  • Dialogue: In the case of intralingual subtitles include as much of the original content as possible – ideally verbatim. Omitting parts of the original dialogue should be a last resort when synchronisation and reading speed is an issue.

  • Include name tags or sound effects only when the speaker or source of sound cannot be seen or clearly identified visually – that is, either off screen or on screen but not clearly visible.

  • When the source of the sound is visible on-screen use sound captions only if necessary to qualify the type of sound (e.g., [door creaks], while [door opens] may not be necessary). Consider volume, intensity, duration, and other qualities of the sound.

  • Describe generic ambience (e.g., [crowd murmur].

  • Describe diegetic or extradiegetic music. Capture the mood of the music (e.g., spiritual, relaxing, ethereal). More specific descriptions can be used, too (piano ballad, cello solo, percussions). Distinguish between diegetic and extra-diegetic music (e.g., [upbeat music] for extradiegetic music; [Street violinist playing] for diegetic music if violinist is not seen. If the violinist is seen describe the style of music).

  • Song lyrics: Subtitle song lyrics that are relevant and that do not interfere with dialogue. Where possible avoid alternating dialogue and song lyric excerpts. Use [song] at the beginning of the subtitle unless the musical note symbol is available in the subtitling software. Use only question marks and exclamation marks at the end of lines, no commas or full stops. Commas can be used within the lyric line if necessary.

  • Add song/music titles when known before the start of a song (space and time permitting). The titles can replace the lyrics when these cannot be included. Place song titles in quotes and album titles in italics (e.g., [“Bohemian rhapsody” playing]).

  • Use tags to specify that a foreign language is spoken (e.g., [bit-Taljan] or [in Italian] followed by the translated text when this is meant to be understood by the viewers). Otherwise, include a tag and leave dialogue untranslated (e.g., [in foreign language])

  • For MT captions use nouns when the source is generic or extended to several people and not specific to one character or person (e.g. [ċapċip] rather than [nies iċapċpu], [leħen baxx], [daħq], [xita], [ħoss tal-magna]. However, use [tibki], [jisgħol], [jonfoħ], [jidħqu], [Joe jidħaq] when the character/s and/or gender are specified).


18. Glossaries


  • In the case of serial productions, create a shared consistency sheet or glossary with key names and phrases and/or specialised jargon. The consistency sheet can also contain specific notes, such as forms of address. This would need to be updated constantly.

  • These specific key names and phrases can be decided upon by the translator in question when they first appear. The rest of the team will follow. Alternatively, the keywords in the original version can be identified and listed, and then discussed together with the team before submission.

  • A consistency sheet may consist of various data including source language version, target language version, episode number, sound tags adopted, MT orthographic adaptation of EN loanwords (only if applicable, see 20).


19. TL-specific guidelines: EN (SL- MT)

  • Adopt standard English.

  • Adopt a standardised and neutralised speech register unless a distinct register is relevant to plot and characterisation. Avoid slang and colloquialisms where not necessary.

  • When having to choose an English variety, adopt British English spelling, vocabulary, and spontaneous speech features (discourse markers, fillers, interjections, etc.) Avoid over-domestication. Avoid American vocabulary such as “elevator”, “sidewalk”, “pants”, “purse”, “hall” etc.

  • Avoid lowering or over-formalising the general language register in documentaries or informative productions (e.g., opt for “poor” rather than “bad,” “efficient” or “effective” rather than “good”).

  • Retain -whenever possible- culture-specific terms and names in MT in order to ensure an MT flavour. Use italics to highlight culture-specific items (or, as a last resort, single inverted commas in the case of client software incompatibility with typeface formatting). Consistency would be necessary throughout. Discuss this translation strategy with the client, when appropriate, and consider the target audience (general web, Australian-Maltese, local residents (Maltese and local non-Maltese).

  • Consistency would be required for names of streets and squares.

  • Spell names consistently across episodes even when there are inconsistencies in the original text. Prioritise spelling visible in on-screen text.

  • Monument names or other cultural sites and museums that are widely known and publicised among locals and tourists in EN may be translated in EN (e.g., St. John’s Cathedral).

  • Numbers: see 13a.

  • Watch out for source language calques on a lexical and syntactical level. Avoid literal translation and prioritise the target text flow and comprehension.

  • Tighten sentences by omitting redundancies, repetitions, hesitations, speech errors (e.g., when interviewees correct themselves), and simplify or sharpen sentences that sound too blurred. Comprehension and avoiding viewer distraction are a priority.

  • Adopt reduction as a strategy where necessary but avoid lines that are way shorter than the original.

  • Use up-to-date inclusive language to refer to ethnicity, race, age, mental health disorders, religion, sexual orientation, disabilities, and so on. Refer to local associations to identify sensitive language and preferred terms and use of language in English among local communities (e.g., a viewer “has” a hearing impairment rather than “suffers from” a hearing impairment; the deaf and hard-of-hearing). This applies especially to non-fiction productions. Non-inclusive language can be considered in fictional productions only if functional to the plot and characterisation and therefore contextualised.

20. TL-specific guidelines: MT (SL- EN)

  • Use standard MT– neutralise any slang and dialects.

  • In general, pick the more familiar term if a choice arises between an EN term widely used in spoken spontaneous language and its less used MT equivalent - unless the intention is didactic or to enhance the use of less common MT vocabulary (e.g., use “selfie” rather than “stessu”, “flashcard” rather than “leħħa”, “orange juice” rather than “sugu tal-larinġ”).

  • In fiction productions, use the MT equivalent of geographical names only when these are familiar and commonly used in everyday spoken language. In documentaries, speeches, TV programmes, and other formal contexts, use official MT equivalents when these are available. Refer to

  • Toning down vulgar language depends on the medium, target audience, and individual dialogue context within the AV content –whether its function is relative to the plot, characters, or circumstance. In the case of free-to-air TV channels, vulgar language should always be toned down, and similar though less strong equivalents sought. More flexibility can be applied in the case of feature films in cinema theatres, pay platforms and services, and online platforms in general. MT direct equivalents may be stronger than their SL counterparts: due attention must be given to MT language norms.

  • On-screen text in English can remain untranslated (e.g., newspaper headings, chat messages, slogans, billboards, etc.) (See 12).

  • Any English language dialogue segments should be subtitled verbatim or edited slightly (hesitations, errors, repetitions can be filtered), thus making them accessible to the HOH.

  • No italics for English borrowings (See 9).

  • Avoid unnecessary contractions (e.g., haw’, fej’, ´ħabba).

  • Avoid informal variants (e.g., iwa).

  • Adopt punctuation and upper case according to the MT language [e.g., Tlieta and tlieta to distinguish between the weekday and the number]

  • Write foreign territory addresses in their original form (e.g., Gower Street, Londra, and not Triq-Gower). If an address that has both an EN and MT version is spoken by a character or narrator, subtitle it in the same language used by the narrator.

  • Avoid coining new MT equivalents.

  • Use up-to-date inclusive language to refer to ethnicity, race, age, mental health disorders, religion, sexual orientation, disabilities, and so on (e.g., persuni b'diżabilità, persuni neqsin mis-smigħ, persuna b'kundizzjoni ta' saħħa mentali, nies LGBTI, Rom, persuni gay, persuni omosesswali, persuni transgender, Indjan, Pakistan, Ċiniż, persuni anzjani). Refer to Refer also to local associations and communities. This applies especially to non-fiction productions. Non-inclusive language can be considered in fictional productions only if functional to the plot and  characterisation, and therefore contextualised.

  • In intralingual MT, standardise the language and keep condensation to a minimum (ideally, verbatim when possible). The text may be edited to omit hesitation, repetition, and to clean up broken or inconsistent speech – unless these have a function relevant to plot and characterisation.

  • Use correct grammar despite any incorrect grammar in the original source text, unless the use of incorrect grammar has a specific function.

  • In the case of wordplay, word puns, or rhyme that do not have an MT direct equivalent, the original wordplay can be retained when the SL is EN. Find corresponding or similar wordplay or pun or rhyme to convey the effect when the SL is a foreign language.

  • Do not translate song lyrics if these are in EN.

  • “OK” is acceptable in MT subtitles.

  • When using EN loanwords, an initial epenthetic vowel is sometimes necessary following the article in MT (e.g., l-ispeaker).

  • EN loanwords that end in ijiet in the MT plural form adopt MT orthography even in their singular form (e.g., brejk, brejkijiet, kejk kejkijiet).

  • When EN loanwords are conjugated in MT, adopt MT orthography (e.g., chat, tiċċettja, save, tissejvja).

  • EN words that end in /s/ in the plural form are retained in EN. In general, it is preferable to avoid orthographic adaptation for EN loanwords that do not require any morphological inflection when used in MT in both the singular and plural form (e.g., use “claim” and “claims” rather than “klejm” and “klejms”, “shower” rather than “xawer”, “fridge” rather than “friġġ”, “technician” rather than “teknixin”, “canteen” rather than “kentin” or “kantin”, “manager” rather than “meniġer” or “maniġer”). This is especially the case when more than one MT variant exists.

  • Exceptions to the above based on widely used MT orthography are acceptable. However, though due to the functional and visual/graphic nature of subtitling (that differs from written text on paper or on web), and, in the absence of an official list to refer to, subtitlers need to avoid choices based on subjective linguistic style, and require strict criteria to ensure consistency across serial productions. A possible solution could be to create a project-specific MT consistency sheet or glossary to be shared and integrated by the entire translation team across all AV content related to the same localisation project. In order to develop and enhance subtitling habituation, consistent standards across productions and media would be preferable.

© Dr. Giselle Spiteri Miggiani


N.B. The above guidelines take into account the decisions published by the Kunsill Nazzjonali tal-Ilsien Malti. These have been customised to AVT-specific needs where necessary. Further studies based on viewer experience and professional practice feedback are necessary to enhance these guidelines.

First published in 2021. Last updated on 27.12.2022

Keyboard and Mouse

Linji Gwida Proposti għal Sottotitli Inklussivi Interlingwi u Intralingwi fil-Kuntest Malti.

© Dr. Giselle Spiteri Miggiani

Id-Dipartiment tal-Istudji tat-Traduzzjoni, it-Terminoloġija u l-Interpretar, l-Università ta’ Malta


Dawn il-linji gwida għandhom jitqiesu bħala xogħol li qiegħed fi proċess kontinwu. Jeħtieġ li jkun hemm aktar studji sperimentali sabiex dawn il-linji gwida jiġu ppruvati u żviluppati aktar. Sadattant, qegħdin jintużaw għal skopijiet didattiċi, edukattivi, għal riċerka applikata, u anke għal proġetti lokali ta’ lokalizzazzjoni tal-midja.

Il-parametri u l-ispeċifikazzjonijiet mogħtija hawnhekk huma mmirati kemm għal sottotitli interlingwi u intralingwi. Dan jgħodd kemm għall-Malti u anke għall-Ingliż (il-lingwa tas-sors tista’ tkun il-Malti, l-Ingliż, jew lingwa oħra). L-intenzjoni hija li jkunu ta’ gwida għal tradutturi tal-awdjoviżiv f’ambjent lingwistiku u kulturali Malti. Il-linji gwida huma mfassla fuq standards u konvenzjonijiet, u varjazzjonijiet tagħhom li huma użati minn firxa globali ta’ networks tat-televixin, pjattaformi ta’ streaming, u kumpaniji tal-lokalizzazzjoni, u ġew addattati għall-bżonnijiet li huma speċifiċi għall-kuntest Malti.

Sottotitli inklussivi huma mmirati lejn firxa wiesgħa ta’ telespettaturi; sew jekk għandhom xi diffikultajiet fis-smigħ u sew jekk m’għandhomx, sew jekk jifhmu bil-Malti u sew jekk ma jifhmux. L-għan tal-ispeċifikazzjonijiet u l-istrateġiji proposti huwa li joħolqu esperjenza pjaċevoli u inklussiva li tista’ titgawda minn kulħadd; li l-ebda telespettatur ma jkun mċaħħad minn informazzjoni essenzjali (eż. ħsejjes relevanti, jew termini u referenzi marbutin ma’ kultura partikolari), filwaqt li tiġi evitata informazzjoni abbundanti żżejjed jew żejda.


Minħabba skopijiet ta’ prattiċità, ċertu terminoloġija teknika tħalliet bl-Ingliż f’dawn il-linji gwida, anka minħabba l-fatt li din l-industrija għadha f’fażi bikrija fil-kuntest Malti, u għalhekk għad trid tiġi żviluppata terminoloġija marbuta ma’ dal-qasam.





AVT- Traduzzjoni Awdjoviżiva

EN- l-Ingliż

MT- il-Malti         

1. Limitu tal-karattri


  • Karattri f’kull linja tas-sottotitlu għal dokumentarji, programmi tat-televixin, intervisti, jew produzzjonijiet simili: 40 (l-ispazji inklużi)

  • Karattri għal kull linja tas-sottotitlu għal produzzjonijiet ta’ finzjoni (film jew teleserje): 38 (spazji inklużi)

2. Veloċità tal-qari

  • Programmi tal-adulti: massimu ta’ 15-il karattru kull sekonda

  • Programmi tat-tfal: massimu ta’ 12-il karattru kull sekonda

3. Tul ta’ ħin

  • Tul minimu ta’ ħin: idealment, sekonda 1. Minimu ta’ 20 frame f’każ ta’ sottotitli b’kelma waħda.

  • Tul massimu ta’ ħin: 6 sekondi għal kull sottotitlu


4. Il-frame gap


  • Minimu ta’ 2 frames bejn is-sottotitli


5. Pożizzjoni

  • Ġeneralment, is-sottotitli għandhom ikunu fin-nofs u fil-qiegħ tal-istampa sakemm il-klijent ma jitlobx mod ieħor.

  • Is-sottotitli jistgħu jitqiegħdu fil-parti ta’ fuq tal-istampa meta jkunu għaddejjin il-credits tal-bidu, jew jekk ikun hemm xi kitba inkorporata fl-istampa tal-filmat. Żomm il-konsistenza tal-pożizzjoni tas-sottotitli waqt li jkunu għaddejjin l-credits, jiġifieri, jekk bdew isiru fuq, ħallihom kollha fuq. 

  • L-ispostament lejn ix-xellug jew il-lemin jista’ jsir f’każ ta’ xeni bi djalogu qasir ta’ tnejn min-nies. Jekk jintuża l-ispostament f’waqtiet bħal dawn, m’hemmx bżonn ta’name tags.

  • Għażliet kreattivi rigward il-pożizzjoni u d-dehra tas-sottotitli jistgħu jiġu diskussi mal-klijent skont it-tip ta’ produzzjoni inkwistjoni. Importanti li tiġi vverifikata il-kompatibilità tal-programm użat ma’ dak tal-editur sabiex dettalji bħall-istil tat-tipa, pożizzjonijiet, u spostamenti ma jintilfux.

6. Is-segmentazzjoni tat-test fis-sottotitli

  • Massimu ta’ 2 linji kull sottotitlu.

  • Jistgħu jintużaw 3 linji fl-aħħar għall-credits tas-sottotitli.

  • Sottotitli b’żewġ linji għandhom ikunu l-ewwel għażla għal dokumentarji, filmati informattivi, u oħrajn ta’ ġeneru simili.

  • F’każ ta’ produzzjonijiet ta’ finzjoni uża sottotitli ta’ żewġ linji jew linja waħda skont il-bżonn. Għaqqad u aqsam il-linji skont kemm ikun mexxej id-diskors, skont ir-ritmu u l-pawżi sabiex jgħinu u jtejbu l-esperjenza tat-telespettatur.

  • Il-qsim tas-sentenza għandu jsir b’tali mod li jiġi evitat l-użu tal-vokali tal-leħen fil-bidu tat-tieni sottotitlu li jkun qed ikompli ma ta’ qablu, ħlief meta il-vokali tal-leħen hija parti mill-artiklu. Jekk hemm bżonn, sib alternattiva.


7. Il-ħin u s-sekwenza tax-shots

  • Idealment is-sottotitli jdumu preżenti daqskemm idum sejjer id-diskors. Jekk dan ma jkunx possibbli u għaldaqstant il-ħin tal-preżenza tas-sottotitlu jeħtieġ li tkun itwal, tista’ żżid sa massimu ta’ 12-il frame.

  • Fejn hu possibbli, is-sottotitli m’għandhomx jibqgħu għaddejjin bejn shot u oħra. Is-sottotitlu għandu jibda jew jispiċċa mal-bidla tax-shot meta l-ħin tat-tranżizzjoni ta’ qabel jew wara x-shot jkun twil sa 7 frames jew inqas.

  • Idealment, il-ħin tal-bidu u tat-tmiem tas-sottotitlu jaqbel ma’ dak tad-diskors. Minkejja dan, ħafna drabi jkun hemm bżonn ta’ xi arranġamenti biex jakkomodaw produzzjonijiet lokali f’każijiet fejn ikun hemm nuqqas ta’ konsistenza jew meta d-diskors ma jkunx mexxej f’intervisti ta’ xi dokumentarju (eż. sentenzi mibdijin, mhux kompluti u mbagħad mibdulin, jew repetizzjoni ta’ kelma fil-bidu tas-sentenza, eċċ.) Jaf ikun hemm bżonn li s-sottotitlu jibda ftit aktar tard meta d-diskors ikun mexxej, bħala metodu addattat ta’ sinkronizzazzjoni.


8. It-tqassim tal-linji

  • Meta t-test irid jinqasam f’żewġ linji, żomm f’moħħok li l-qari għandu jkun mexxej. Idealment, is-sottotitlu jinqasam qabel il-konġunzjonijiet, wara l-punteġġjatura, qabel il-prepożizzjonijiet, sabiex kemm jista’ jkun kull linja tkun tikkonsisti minn unità semantika separata.

  • Idealment, it-tqassim tal-linji m’għandux jifred nom minn ma’ aġġettiv jew artiklu, verb minn mal-pronom tas-suġġett, verb prepożizzjonali minn mal-prepożizzjoni tiegħu, verb minn mal-verb awżiljarju tiegħu, pronom riflessiv, jew minn man-negattiv.

  • Tifridx ismijiet minn mal-kunjomijiet.

  • F’sottotitli bil-MT, tifridx l-artiklu u l-partiċelli minn man-nom.


9. Il-korsiv


  • Fi produzzjonijiet ta’ finzjoni: għal diskors voice-over, narrazzjoni, jew ħsibijiet.

  • F’każ ta’ dokumentarji jew programmi televiżivi l-użu tal-korsiv għandu jiġi evitat meta d-diskors voice-over tan-narraturi/kelliema/preżentaturi jieħu daqs 50% tal-kontenut mitkellem tal-programm. Jistgħu jintużaw in-name tags biex jindikaw narrazzjoni li qed issir b’voice-over (eż. [preżentatur], [Clare], [narratur]).

  • Meta l-kelliem ma jidhirx fin-narrattiva jew fl-ispazju dijeġetiku imma mhux meta l-kelliem sempliċiment m’għandux il-kamera fuqu.

  • Għad-djalogu li jinstema’ għaddej fuq it-telefown, fuq it-televixin, fuq il-kompjuter, jew fuq xi apparat elettroniku ieħor minn fejn tista’ tinstema’ ħierġa l-vuċi.

  • Il-lirika tal-kanzunetti. Uża l-virgoletti għat-titli tal-kanzunetti. Tista’ żżid simbolu ta’ nota mużikali fil-bidu ta’ kull sottotitlu b’vers ta’ lirika. Is-sottotitlu bl-aħħar vers imbagħad għandu jkollu s-simbolu tan-nota mużikali fil-bidu u fl-aħħar biex jindika t-tmiem tal-kanzunetta. 

  • Titli ta’ kotba, gazzetti, opri tal-arti, albums tal-mużika, films, programmi televiżivi.

  • Kliem jew frażijiet barranin li mhumiex familjari, u ismijiet ta’ ikel/platti jew elementi oħra li huma speċifiċi għal kultura partikolari.

  • Tużax il-korsiv għal nomi proprji bħal postijiet Maltin jew barranin, jew ismijiet ta’ kumpaniji. F’dal-każijiet, ikteb l-ewwel ittra kapitali.

  • F’sottotitli bl-EN, f’każ li jinżamm xi kliem tal-lingwa oriġinali fit-test mira, tużax il-korsiv għal kliem MT bħal dak interkalarju (eż. mela, ejja) jew kliem b’lingwi oħra imma li hu familjari (eż. “ad hoc”, “rendezvous”).

  • F’sottotitli bil-MT, tużax il-korsiv għal kliem bl-EN jew b’lingwi oħra li jkun familjari.


10. Żewġ kelliema

  • Uża s-sing mingħajr spazju biex tindika li hemm żewġ kelliema f’sottotitlu wieħed. Linja għal kull kelliem. Is-sing jiġi qabel kull name tag.

Sottotitlu 1

-Fejn kont?



               Sottotitlu 1

-[Clare] Ejja niddiskutuha.

-[Joe] Iva, mela le.


                Sottotitlu 1

-[Joe jidħaq]

-Għedtlek jien!


  • Uża s-sing għal kull linja meta jkollok deskrizzjoni ta’ ħoss f’linja u vers tad-djalogu f’linja oħra li jkun ġej minn sors differenti minn dak li hu mniżżel fil-linja ta’ qabel.

-[idoqq it-telefown]



11. L-ellissi u l-puntini ta’ sospensjoni

  • Tużax l-ellissi (3 puntini) jew is-sing meta sentenza titqassam f’aktar minn sottotitlu wieħed.

Sottotitlu 1   Aħna konna tlabniek

Sottotitlu 2   biex tiffoka fuq l-eżamijiet tal-aħħar. 

  • Uża l-ellissi biss fl-aħħar tal-ewwel sottotitlu jekk hemm pawża twila bejn is-sottotitli. F’dal-każ m’hemmx bżonn terġa’ tuża l-ellissi fil-bidu tat-tieni sottotitlu. Jekk il-pawża tkun twila ħafna, tista’ tuża l-ellissi anke fil-bidu tat-tieni sottotitlu biex turi li qed tkompli s-sentenza. Jekk m’hemmx pawżi, tużax il-puntini kull darba li taqsam sentenza.

Sottotitlu 1   Kieku kont naf...

Sottotitlu 2   Ma kontx inċempel.

  • Biex tindika pawża fl-istess sottotitlu uża 3 puntini mingħajr ma tħalli spazju.

Sottotitlu 1   Kieku kont kontx inċempel.

  • Uża l-puntini ta’ sospensjoni biex tindika sentenza li mhijiex kompluta jew li ġiet interrotta f’daqqa.

Sottotitlu 1 Fejn ix-xjafek qiegħe…?

Sottotitlu 2 Agħlaq ħalqek!

  • Uża l-ellissi mingħajr spazju biex tindika li s-sottotitlu jibda minn nofs sentenza.

Sottotitlu 1  ...ikun sejjer l-iskola.


12. Kitba inkorporata

  • Meta l-lingwa mira hija l-EN, kwalunkwe kitba bil-MT li hija inkorporata fil-filmat, trid tiġi tradotta għall-EN sakemm il-kontenut mhuwiex spjegat jew inkorporat fid-djalogu/diskors, jew miżjud apposta fil-kontenut tas-sottotitli (eż. iżżid it-titlu jew il-pożizzjoni tal-kelliem fis-sottotitli). 

  • Jekk il-lingwa sors priniċipali hija l-EN u l-lingwa mira hija l-MT, m’hemmx bżonn ta’ traduzzjoni tal-kitba inkorporata fil-grafika jekk din tkun bl-EN.

  • Uża ittri kbar għall-kitba kollha ħlief jekk il-kitba tkun xi silta minn xi ktieb, ittra, gazzetta jew messaġġ twil ħafna. Jekk il-karattru jaqra jgħajjat il-kitba inkorporata, uża l-virgoletti.

Sottotitlu 1   TIDĦOLX

  • Jekk hemm persunaġġ/kelliem li qiegħed jaqra l-kitba inkorporata, uża l-virgoletti (mhux l-ittri kbar) biex tenfasizza li l-kitba qed tinqara. Uża name tag jekk il-persunaġġ/kelliem ma jidhirx fuq l-iskrin.

  • Evita li jkun hemm kunflitt fil-grafika ma’ kitba inkorporata - poġġi s-sottotitlu f’post fejn jista’ jinqara faċilment.

  • Iddaħħalx id-djalogu u t-traduzzjoni ta’ kitba inkorporata b’funzjoni narrattiva fl-istess sottotitlu.

  • Jekk ikun hemm kitba b’funzjoni narrattiva li tinterrompi d-djalogu, uża l-ellissi fl-aħħar tas-sottotitlu inkwistjoni, u fil-bidu tas-sottotitlu li jmiss.

Sottotitlu 1   Fi żmieni...

Sottotitlu 2   TIPJIP PROJBIT

Sottotitlu 3    …konna nistgħu npejpu kullimkien.

  • Għat-traduzzjoni ta’ titli ta’ produzzjonijiet uża ittri kbar għat-titlu kollu (eż. CULHAT AL BELT, THE LOCAL TRAVELLER).


13a. Numri u ħin (bl-Ingliż)


  • Minn 1 sa 10 - iktibhom fi kliem (eż. one, two, three).

  • ’Il fuq minn 10 - iktibhom numerikament (eż. 11, 12, 13, 135, 1,000). Iktibhom fi kliem (jew ħallat numri u kliem) għal numri kbar b’ħafna żerijiet. Uża l-forma numerika għal numri deċimali biex jinftiehmu faċilment (eż. one million, 12 million, 100 thousand, 2.5 million). 

  • Jekk in-numru jinzerta fil-bidu tas-sottotitlu, iktbu fi kliem.

  • Kun konsistenti fl-użu tal-punti u l-virgoli (eż. 5,000, 1.95 million inhabitants, 9.30 pm).

  • Kun konsistenti fid-dati u n-numri ordinali (eż. 5th May, May 5, or 5th of May). L-ewwel għażla hija preferuta.

  • Uża numri għad-dati (anke minn 1 sa 10).

  • Ħin: a) Uża n-numri (eż. 11.30 am); b) Uża ittri żgħar għal am u pm fejn hemm il-bżonn li tispeċifika; c) Espressjonijiet ta’ ħin li ma jinkludux numri iktibhom fi kliem (eż. half past, quarter to, midnight, noon).


13b.Numri u ħin (bil-Malti)

  • Minn 1 sa 10 - iktibhom fi kliem (eż. wieħed, tnejn, tlieta, eċċ.).

  • ’Il fuq minn 10 - iktibhom numerikament (eż. 11, 12, 13, 135, 1,000 eċċ.).

  • Tista’ tintuża taħlita ta’ numri u kliem għal numri kbar (eż. 70 elf).

  • Uża l-forma numerika għal numri deċimali (eż. 2.5 miljun).

  • Jekk in-numru jinzerta fil-bidu tas-sottotitlu, iktbu fi kliem.

  • Ikteb inflessjonijiet morfoloġiċi fi kliem (eż. ħamest itfal, żewġ, mitt, mitt elf, ħames miljuni, tlett irġiel).

  • Uża n-numri għad-dati (5 ta’ Ġunju).

  • Ħin: uża n-numri u imxi fuq l-arloġġ ta’ 12-il siegħa (eż. fid-9 am). Nofsillejl u nofsinhar jistgħu jinkitbu fi kliem, jekk il-ħin u l-ispazju jippermettu.

14. L-unitajiet ta’ kejl u l-munita

  • Traduċi l-unitajiet ta’ kejl antiki li m’għadhomx jintużaw illum, imma tikkonvertihomx (eż. f’dokumentarji storiċi).

  • Meta l-udjenza mira ma tkunx magħrufa, huwa rakkomandat li tittraduċi u taqleb is-sistema ta’ kejl imperjali għas-sistema metrika (ċentimetri u metri minflok piedi, pulzieri, jardi, eċċ.).

  • Jekk l-udjenza mira hija Awstraljana jew Maltija, il-kejl imperjali jista’ jiġi kkunsidrat. Qis li tkun konsistenti.

  • Meta l-lingwa mira tkun il-MT, aqleb l-unitajiet tal-kejl skont kif jintużaw fil-MT.

  • Fis-sottotitli bil-MT jistgħu jintużaw taqsiriet għall-kejl bl-EN (eż. cm, m, km).

  • Kull meta jkun possibbli uża l-kelma biex tirreferi għall-munita (liri, yen, krona), minflok is-simbolu. Tista’ ssir eċċezzjoni għas-simboli € u $ li jintużaw ta’ spiss, f’każ li tkun limitat mill-ispazju u l-ħin.

  • Jista’ jintuża s-simbolu % (bla spazju), u l-frazzjonijiet jistgħu jinkitbu bil-forma numerika (eż. 1/3, 2/3).

  • Tista’ tintuża l-ittra ‘M’ għal million jew miljun.


15. It-taqsiriet

  • Jistgħu jintużaw abbrevjazzjonijiet/taqsiriet/akronimi magħrufin. L-ebda punti. Uża l-ittri kbar għat-taqsiriet: FYI, ASAP, FBI, UE, MEPA, WWI, u taħlita ta’ taqsiriet jekk ikun hemm bżonn (eż. Dr, Mr, km, cm, m).


16. Il-kwotazzjonijiet

  • Il-virgoletti doppji għandhom jintużaw għal kliem, frażijiet, u sentenzi kwotati; uża virgoletti  singli għal kwotazzjonijiet ġo kwotazzjonijiet oħra.

Sottotitlu 1 Qaltli: “Il-lekċers tħassru.”

  • Jekk il-kwotazzjoni testendi f’aktar minn sottotitlu wieħed, uża virgoletti tal-ftuħ fil-bidu tal-ewwel sottotitlu u tal-għeluq fi tmiem l-aħħar sottotitlu.
    Sottotitlu 1 “Lil din l-art ħelwa
    Sottotitlu 2 L-omm li tatna isimha,
    Sottotitlu 3 Ħares Mulej kif dejjem int ħarist.”

  • Il-punti u l-virgoli jiġu qabel il-virgoletti tal-għeluq, kemm jekk ikunu doppji jew singli.

  • Il-puntini doppji u l-punt u virgola jiġu wara l-virgoletti tal-għeluq.

  • Il-punti interrogattivi u dawk ta’ esklamazzjoni għandhom jiġu wara l-virgoletti sakemm ma jkunux parti mit-test kwotat:

Sottotitlu 1
Liema innu jinkludi l-frażi:
“Ħares Mulej kif dejjem int ħarist…”?
Sottotitlu 2
"L-Innu Malti" ta’ Dun Karm Psaila. 

  • Għandhom jintużaw il-virgoletti mal-ismijiet tal-kanzunetti. Għandu jintuża l-korsiv għal-lirika u għall-ismijiet tal-albums mużikali.


17. L-aċċess sensorju

  • Ir-rikomandazzjoni hija li s-sottotitli jipprovdu aċċess sensorju lit-telespettaturi neqsin mis-smigħ fost l-udjenza mira usa’ sakemm il-klijent ma jispeċifikax mod ieħor.

  • Simboli għall-ħsejjes u għal min qed jitkellem: Uża parentesi kwadri u ittri żgħar (ħlief għan-nomi proprji) għal deskrizzjonijiet ta’ ħsejjes, mużika, kif ukoll għan-name tags (eż. [Joe jidħaq], [isaffar bil-mod], [Joe] Kont naf li kienet hi).

      Tużax il-korsiv, anke jekk id-djalogu li jsegwi jkun bil-voice-over, eċċ.

  • Id-djalogu: Fil-każ ta’ sottotitli intralingwi inkludi kontenut oriġinali kemm tista’ - idealment kelma b’kelma. Li tneħħi partijiet mid-djalogu oriġinali għandha tkun l-aħħar għażla, meta jkollok problema bis-sinkronizzazzjoni u l-veloċità tal-qari.

  • Inkludi name tags jew ħsejjes speċjali biss meta min ikun qed jitkellem jew is-sors tal-ħoss ma jidhirx jew ma jkunx identifikat viżwalment b’mod ċar - dan ifisser li jew ma jkunx jidher, jew ikun jidher, iżda ma jkunx daqshekk viżibbli.

  • Meta l-kamera tkun fuq is-sors tal-ħoss u dan ikun viżibbli, uża deskrizzjonijiet tal-ħoss biss jekk ikun meħtieġ li tikkwalifika t-tip ta’ ħoss (eż. [il-bieb iżaqżaq], filwaqt li [il-bieb jingħalaq] jaf ma tkunx meħtieġa. Qis il-volum, l-intensità, it-tul, u kwalitajiet oħra tal-ħoss.

  • Iddeskrivi l-ambjent ġeneriku (eż. [tinstema’ l-folla fl-isfond].

  • Iddeskrivi l-mużika dijeġetika jew ekstradijeġetika. Qis li twassal il-burdata tal-mużika (eż. spiritwali, rilassanti, etereali). Jistgħu jintużaw deskrizzjonijiet iżjed speċifiċi wkoll (kanzunetta kajmana bil-pjanu, solo biċ-ċello, perkussjoni). Iddistingwi bejn mużika dijeġetika u dik ekstradijeġetika (eż. [mużika ferrieħa] għal mużika ekstradijeġetika; [Vjolinist idoqq fit-triq] għal mużika dijeġetika jekk il-vjolinist ma jidhirx. Jekk il-vjolinist jidher, iddeskrivi l-istil tal-mużika).

  • Lirika tal-kanzunetti: Ikteb il-lirika tal-kanzunetti li tkun relevanti u li ma ttellifx mid-djalogu. Fejn hu possibbli evita li talterna d-djalogu u biċċiet tal-lirika. Uża [kanzunetta] fil-bidu tas-sottotitlu sakemm ma jkunx disponibbli s-simbolu ta’ nota mużikali fis-software tas-sottotitli. Uża biss punti interrogattivi u ta’ esklamazzjoni fi tmiem il-linji, mhux virgoli jew punti. Il-virgoli jistgħu jintużaw fil-linja tal-lirika jekk ikun hemm bżonn.

  • Żid l-isem tal-kanzunetta/mużika meta jkunu magħrufin qabel tibda l-kanzunetta (jekk jippermettu dan l-ispazju u l-ħin). L-ismijiet jistgħu jieħdu post il-lirika meta din ma tkunx tista’ tkun inkluża. Uża l-virgoletti mal-ismijiet tal-kanzunetti u l-korsiv mal-ismijiet tal-albums (eż. [Qed tindaqq “Bohemian rhapsody”]).

  • Uża t-tags biex tispeċifika li qed tintuża lingwa barranija (eż. [bit-Taljan] jew [in Italian] segwita mit-test tradott meta dan ikun irid jinftiehem mill-udjenza). Inkella, inkludi tag u tittraduċix id-djalogu (eż. [b’lingwa barranija])

  • Għad-deskrizzjonijiet bil-MT uża nomi meta s-sors ikun ġeneriku jew estiż għal diversi persuni u mhux speċifiku għal karattru wieħed jew persuna waħda (eż. [ċapċip] minflok [nies iċapċpu], [leħen baxx], [daħq], [xita], [ħoss tal-magna]. Madankollu, uża [tibki], [jisgħol], [jonfoħ], [jidħqu], [Joe jidħaq] meta l-karattru/i u l-ġeneru/i jkunu speċifikati).


18. Il-glossarji


  • Fil-każ ta’ sensiliet, oħloq dokument għal noti ta’ konsistenza jew glossarju bl-ismijiet u l-frażijiet ewlenin, u/jew ir-reġistru speċjalizzat. Dan id-dokument jista’ jinkludi wkoll noti speċifiċi, bħall-forom ta’ indirizz. Dan irid jiġi aġġornat kontinwament.

  • Dawn l-ismijiet u frażijiet ewlenin jistgħu jintgħażlu mit-traduttur inkwistjoni meta jitfaċċaw għall-ewwel darba. Il-bqija tat-tim imbagħad jimxi magħhom. Inkella, il-kliem ewlieni fil-verżjoni oriġinali jista’ jiġi identifikat u elenkat, u mbagħad issir diskussjoni fost it-tim qabel is-sottomissjoni.

  • In-noti tal-konsistenza jista’ jkollhom informazzjoni varja, li tinkludi: il-verżjoni tal-lingwa sors, il-verżjoni tal-lingwa mira, in-numru tal-episodju, it-tags li jintgħażlu għall-ħoss, l-addattament ortografiku bil-MT ta’ kliem mill-EN (jekk applikabbli biss, ara 20).


19. Linji gwida speċifiċi għal-lingwa mira: EN (Lingwa sors - MT)

  • Addotta Ingliż standard.

  • Addotta reġistru lingwistiku tad-diskors standardizzat u newtralizzat sakemm ma jkunx relevanti reġistru distint għall-plott u għall-karatterizzazzjoni. Evita l-lingwaġġ informali u l-kollokjaliżmi meta mhux meħtieġa.

  • Meta jkollok tagħżel varjetà Ingliża, addotta l-ortografija, il-vokabularju u l-partijiet tad-diskors spontanji (markaturi tad-diskors, kliem li jintqal biex jimla l-vojt, interjezzjonijiet, eċċ.) tal-Ingliż użat fir-Renju Unit. Evita li tiddomestiċizza żżejjed. Evita vokabularju Amerikan bħal “elevator”, “sidewalk”, “pants”, “purse”, “hall”, eċċ.

  • Evita li tbaxxi jew tifformalizza żżejjed ir-reġistru lingwistiku ġenerali fid-dokumentarji jew fi produzzjonijiet informattivi (eż. agħżel “poor” minflok “bad”, “effiċjenti” jew “effettiv” minflok “good”).

  • Żomm - fejn hu possibbli - termini kulturali partikolari u ismijiet bil-MT biex tiżgura li jkollok togħma tal-MT. Uża l-korsiv biex tenfasizza oġġetti kulturali partikolari (inkella, bħala l-aħħar għażla, uża l-virgoletti f’każ li s-software tal-klijent ma jkunx kompatibbli mal-karattri użati). Il-konsistenza hija meħtieġa. Iddiskuti din l-istrateġija fit-traduzzjoni mal-klijent, meta jkun xieraq, u kkunsidra l-udjenza mira (l-udjenza ġenerali fuq l-internet, dik Maltija-Awstraljana, residenti lokali (Maltin u mhux Maltin)).

  • Irid ikun hemm konsistenza fl-ismijiet tat-toroq u tal-pjazez.

  • Spelli l-ismijiet b’mod konsistenti minn episodju għal ieħor, anke jekk ikun hemm inkonsistenzi fit-test oriġinali. Ipprijoritizza l-ortografija viżibbli fit-test li jidher fuq l-iskrin.

  • L-ismijiet tal-monumenti jew ta’ siti kulturali oħra u mużewijiet li huma magħrufin ħafna u ppubbliċizzati fost in-nies li joqogħdu Malta u t-turisti bl-EN jistgħu jiġu tradotti bl-EN (eż. St John’s Cathedral).

  • In-numri: ara 13a.

  • Attent għall-kalki tal-lingwa sors fuq bażi lessikali u sintattika. Evita li tittraduċi letteralment u ara li t-test mira jkun mexxej u jinftiehem.

  • Qassar is-sentenzi billi tħalli barra partijiet mhux meħtieġa, ripetizzjonijiet, pawżi, żbalji fid-diskors (eż. meta min qed jiġi intervistat jikkoreġi lilu nnifsu), u ssimplifika jew irranġa s-sentenzi li ma jinstemgħux ċari biżżejjed. Il-fehim hu prijorità, kif ukoll li min qed isegwi jibqa’ attent.

  • Naqqas fejn hemm bżonn imma evita linji li jkunu ferm iqsar mill-oriġinali.

  • Uża lingwa inklussiva aġġornata biex tirreferi għall-etniċità, għar-razza, għall-età, għal problemi ta’ saħħa mentali, għar-reliġjon, għall-orjentazzjoni sesswali, għad-diżabilitajiet, u l-bqija. Irreferi għal assoċjazzjonijiet lokali sabiex tidentifika lingwa sensittiva u t-termini u l-użu tal-lingwa bl-Ingliż preferiti fil-komunitajiet lokali (eż. telespettatur “għandu” diffikultà fis-smigħ u mhux “ibati minn” diffikultà fis-smigħ; dawk neqsin mis-smigħ).

     Dan japplika speċjalment għal produzzjonijiet li mhumiex ta’ finzjoni. Lingwa          mhux inklussiva tista’ tiġi kkunsidrata biss fi produzzjonijiet ta’ finzjoni jekk tkun utli għall-plott u għall-karatterizzazzjoni, u għalhekk, jekk tkun kuntestwalizzata.

20. Linji gwida speċifiċi għal-lingwa mira: MT (Lingwa sors - EN)

  • Uża MT standard - innewtralizza xi diskors informali jew djalettali.

  • B’mod ġenerali, agħżel l-iżjed terminu familjari jekk ikollok tagħżel bejn terminu EN mifrux fil-lingwa mitkellma spontanja u l-ekwivalenti tiegħu bil-MT li jintuża inqas - sakemm l-intenzjoni ma tkunx waħda didattika jew biex ittejjeb l-użu ta’ vokabularju MT inqas komuni (eż. uża “selfie” minflok “stessu”, “flash card” minflok “leħħa”, “orange juice” minflok “sugu tal-larinġ”).

  • Fi produzzjonijiet ta’ finzjoni, uża l-ekwivalenti Maltija ta’ ismijiet ġeografiċi biss meta dawn ikunu familjari u użati b’mod komuni fil-lingwa mitkellma ta’ kuljum. Fid-dokumentarji, diskorsi, programmi televiżivi u kuntesti formali oħra uża l-ekwivalenti uffiċjali bil-MT meta dawn ikunu disponibbli. Irreferi għal

  • Ittaffix il-lingwaġġ vulgari jew le, jiddependi mill-mezz, mill-udjenza mira, u mill-kuntest tad-djalogu individwali fi ħdan il-kontenut awdjoviżiv - kemm jekk il-funzjoni tiegħu tkun relevanti għall-plott, għall-karattri jew għaċ-ċirkustanzi. Fil-każ tal-istazzjonijiet televiżivi mingħajr ħlas, il-lingwaġġ vulgari għandu dejjem jittaffa, u minfloku jinstab lingwaġġ ekwivalenti simili imma mhux daqshekk qawwi. Jista’ jkun hemm aktar flessibbiltà fil-każ tal-films fiċ-ċinema, fil-pjattaformi tal-ħlas u fis-servizzi, u fuq pjattaformi online b’mod ġenerali. Ekwivalenti diretti bil-MT jaf ikunu iżjed qawwijin mill-ekwivalenti tagħhom bil-lingwa sors: trid tingħata l-attenzjoni meħtieġa lin-normi lingwistiċi tal-MT.

  • Test bl-Ingliż fuq l-iskrin jista’ ma jiġix tradott (eż. titli fil-gazzetti, messaġġi, slogans, billboards, eċċ.) (Ara 12).

  • Biċċiet tad-djalogu bl-Ingliż għandu jkollhom is-sottotitli kelma b’kelma jew ikunu editjati ftit (il-waqfiet, l-iżbalji, u r-repetizzjonijiet jistgħu jkunu editjati), u għalhekk ikunu aċċessibbli għal dawk neqsin mis-smigħ.

  • Tużax il-korsiv għal kliem mill-Ingliż (Ara 9).

  • Evita taqsiriet mhux meħtieġa (eż. haw’, fej’, ‘ħabba).

  • Evita varjanti informali (eż. iwa).

  • Uża l-punteġġjatura u l-ittri kbar skont il-lingwa MT (eż. Tlieta u tlieta biex tiddistingwi bejn il-ġurnata u n-numru).

  • Ikteb indirizzi ta’ barra minn Malta fil-forma oriġinali tagħhom (eż. Gower Street, Londra, u mhux Triq Gower). Jekk indirizz li jkollu verżjoni bl-EN u bil-MT jgħidu karattru jew in-narratur, fis-sottotitli iktbu bl-istess lingwa użata min-narratur.

  • Evita li tivvinta ekwivalenti ġodda bil-MT.

  • Uża lingwa inklussiva aġġornata biex tirreferi għall-etniċità, għar-razza, għall-età, għal problemi ta’ saħħa mentali, għar-reliġjon, għall-orjentazzjoni sesswali, għad-diżabilitajiet, u l-bqija (eż. persuni b’diżabilità, persuni neqsin mis-smigħ, persuna b’kundizzjoni ta’ saħħa mentali, nies LGBTI, Rom, persuni gay, persuni omosesswali, persuni transgender, Indjan, Pakistan, Ċiniż, persuni anzjani). Irreferi għal
    Irreferi wkoll għal assoċjazzjonijiet u komunitajiet lokali.

Dan japplika speċjalment għal produzzjonijiet li mhumiex ta’ finzjoni. Il-lingwa mhux inklussiva tista’ tkun ikkunsidrata fi produzzjonijiet ta’ finzjoni biss jekk tgħin fil-plott u fil-karatterizzazzjoni, u għalhekk, tkun kuntestwalizzata.

  • Fil-MT intralingwi, standardizza l-lingwa u qassar mill-inqas (idealment ikteb kelma b’kelma fejn possibbli). It-test jista’ jiġi editjat biex jitneħħew waqfiet, ripetizzjonijiet u biex jitnaddaf diskors bil-waqfiet jew inkonsistenzi - jekk dawn ma jkollhomx xi funzjoni relevanti għall-plott u għall-karatterizzazzjoni.

  • Uża l-grammatika korretta anke jekk ikun hemm grammatika skorretta fit-test sors oriġinali, ħlief jekk il-grammatika skorretta ma jkollhiex funzjoni speċifika.

  • Fil-każ ta’ logħob bil-kliem, paronomasja jew rima li m’għandhiex ekwivalenti diretta bil-MT, il-logħob bil-kliem oriġinali jista’ jinżamm meta l-lingwa sors tkun l-EN. Sib logħob bil-kliem, paronomasja jew rima li taqbel jew simili biex twassal l-istess effett meta l-lingwa sors tkun lingwa barranija.

  • Tittraduċix il-lirika tal-kanzunetti jekk din tkun bl-EN.

  • “OK” hi aċċettabbli fis-sottotitli bil-MT.

  • Meta tuża kliem mill-EN, ġieli teħtieġ vokali epentetika fil-bidu, wara l-artiklu bil-MT (eż. l-ispeaker).

  • Kliem mill-EN li jispiċċa b’ijiet fil-plural bil-MT jaddotta ortografija Maltija anke fis-singular (eż. brejk, brejkijiet, kejk, kejkijiet).

  • Meta kliem mill-EN ikun konjugat bil-MT, addotta l-ortografija Maltija (eż. chat, tiċċettja, save, tissejvja).

  • Kliem bl-EN li jispiċċa bil-konsonanti /s/ fil-plural jinżamm hekk bl-EN. B’mod ġenerali, aħjar tevita li taddatta l-ortografija għall-kliem mill-EN li ma jeħtieġx inflessjoni morfoloġika meta jintuża bil-MT, kemm fis-singular, kif ukoll fil-plural (eż. uża “claim” u “claims” minflok “klejm” u “klejms”, “shower” minflok “xawer”, “fridge” minflok “friġġ”, “technician” minflok “teknixin”, “canteen” minflok “kentin” jew “kantin”, “manager” minflok “meniġer” jew “maniġer”). Dan jgħodd speċjalment meta jeżisti aktar minn varjant wieħed bil-MT.

  • Huma aċċettabbli eċċezzjonijiet għal dawn t’hawn fuq ibbażati fuq l-ortografija Maltija mifruxa. Madankollu, minħabba n-natura funzjonali u viżwali/grafika tas-sottotitli (li tvarja mit-test miktub fuq il-karta jew fuq l-internet), u, billi m’hemmx lista uffiċjali għal xiex jirreferu, dawk li jagħmlu s-sottotitli jridu jevitaw għażliet ibbażati fuq stil lingwistiku suġġettiv, u jridu kriterji stretti biex jiżguraw li jkun hemm konsistenza fi produzzjonijiet li joħorġu f’sensiliet. Soluzzjoni possibbli tista’ tkun li jinħoloq dokument b’noti għall-konsistenza bil-MT għal proġett speċifiku, jew glossarju, biex dan jitqassam u jkun integrat mit-tim kollu tat-traduzzjoni fil-kontenut awdjoviżiv kollu relatat mal-istess proġett ta’ lokalizzazzjoni. Sabiex jinħolqu u jitjiebu n-normi tas-sottotitli, idealment ikun hemm standards konsistenti fi produzzjonijiet u f’midja differenti.


Nota: Il-linji gwida t’hawn fuq iqisu d-deċiżjonijiet maħruġin mill-Kunsill Nazzjonali tal-Ilsien Malti. Dawn ġew addattati għall-bżonnijiet tal-AVT fejn kien hemm bżonn. Hemm bżonn iżjed studji bbażati fuq l-esperjenza tal-udjenza, u rispons professjonali, sabiex il-linji gwida jkunu jistgħu jiġu mtejbin.

L-ewwel pubblikazzjoni: 2021. Aġġornati l-aħħar fis-27 ta’ Diċembru, 2022.

Traduzzjoni: Martina Cremona u Sephora Francalanza.

Maltese version


The following is a breakdown of the inclusive subtitles workflow:

1.  Partial transcription (partial or full transcription);

2.  Translation of verbal content and written graphics;

3.  Spotting and creation of a timed-text template;

4.  Linguistic and technical adaptation for the creation of                             subtitles;

5.  Inclusion of captions for sensory access;

6.  QC / language editing / technical revision / consistency                          check across episodes.


In the case of teamwork, the translation team would be responsible for:

1. Final outcome and quality standards;

2. Translation, subtitling, revision, proofreading, and script                          editing; 

3.  Any adjustments or revisions recommended by the client;

4.  Subtitling software costs.

In the case of teamwork, the localisation manager would be responsible for:

1. Team coordination

2. Liaison with client & exchange of deliverables

3. Distribution of material among team members

4. Glossary & consistency management

5. Team agreement on project-specific localisation strategies

6. Invoice management


6 - 8.5 euro (excl. VAT) per minute of film for the creation of a timed-text file providing inclusive interlingual subtitles (English-Maltese, Maltese-English, foreign language-Maltese, foreign language-English). This also includes transcription (where applicable) and QC. The fee may vary according to the number of episodes required, degree of difficulty, genre, language combinations, the quantity of verbal text, and availability of post-production scripts.

4 - 5 euro (excl. VAT) per minute of film for the creation of a timed-text file providing inclusive intralingual subtitles.

2.5 - 3 euro (excl. VAT) per minute of film for QC only (technical and linguistic revision)

4 - 5 euro (excl. VAT) per minute of film for the translation and adaptation of a timed-text source language template (locked or unlocked).

8 - 10 euro (excl. VAT) per minute of film for uncommon language combinations (e.g. Maltese-Italian, Maltese-French, Maltese-Arabic).

60 - 135 euro (excl. VAT) per project for localisation management & team coordination

60 - 150 euro (excl. VAT) per project for accessible filmmaking consultancy


Suggested Rates & Workflow
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